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 Mohit Puri





Presently UGC-JRF,




{Note:- This website is for Educational and Knowledge Dissemination Purpose only. This website is not for commercial purpose. All the references/sources have been given also from where the material has been taken.} 





Hello Students, How are you?

If you have any problem in subjects of Teacher in Emerging Society and Understanding Human Behaviour, then tell me. I am providing easy notes as well as powerpoint presentations for your effective learning. You can click below the links to get important notes and powerpoint presentations.


1. Teacher in Emerging Society(EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY)

2. Psychology Presentations

3. Development of Educational System in India

Great Thoughts


Ph.D. Course Work Subjects


1. Advanced Research Methodology



2. Advanced Educational Psychology



3Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education



4. Teacher Education



Some Great Personalities I respect a lot and get inspiration from them are:

Swami Vivekananda, known in his pre-monastic life as Narendra Nath Datta, was born in an affluent family in Kolkata on 12 January 1863.  His father,Vishwanath Datta, was a successful attorney with interests in a wide range of subjects, and his mother,Bhuvaneshwari Devi, was endowed with deep devotion, strong character and other qualities. A precocious boy, Narendra excelled in music, gymnastics and studies.  By the time he graduated from Calcutta University, he had acquired a vast knowledge of different subjects, especially Western philosophy and history.  Born with a yogic temperament, he used to practise meditation even from his boyhood, and was associated with Brahmo Movement for some time.

Some of his powerful teachings are as:--

Education is the manifestation of the perfection already in man.

 We want that education by which character is formed, strength of mind is increased, the intellect is expanded, and by which one can stand on one's own feet.

So long as the millions live in hunger and ignorance, I hold every man a traitor who, having been educated at their expense, pays not the least heed to them.

Whatever you think, that you will be.  If you think yourselves weak, weak you will be; if you think yourselves strong, strong you will be.

If you have faith in all the three hundred and thirty millions of your mythological gods, … and still have no faith in yourselves, there is no salvation for you. Have faith in yourselves, and stand up on that faith and be strong; that is what we need.

Strength, strength it is that we want so much in this life, for what we call sin and sorrow have all one cause, and that is our weakness. With weakness comes ignorance, and with ignorance comes misery.

The older I grow, the more everything seems to me to lie in manliness. This is my new Gospel.

Purity, patience, and perseverance are the three essentials to success, and above all, love.

Religion is realization; not talk, not doctrine, nor theories, however beautiful they may be. It is being and becoming, not hearing or acknowledging; it is the whole soul becoming changed into what it believes.

Religion is the manifestation of the Divinity already in man.

Source: http://www.belurmath.org/



 Prof. Joginder Singh Puri, The enlightened and spiritual personality. He is also known as DAR JI with respect and love.

His article is given below:{reference:http://www.ourdarji.com/blog/}
One fine morning when I woke up, rubbing my eyes, I found that everything in the bedroom was entirely different than how I had left it last night. Now the entire bedroom was full of beds all around, no side tables, no lamps and no telephone whatsoever. The entire bedroom was full of beds only. Surprised, I went to the bathroom and found that it also looked like the bedroom. To my utmost surprise, when I went to the other rooms, they looked exactly the same as my bedroom. It was quite alarming for me. Terrified, I called my sons and daughters to see what had happened but to my surprise again both of them looked exactly like their mom.

Taken aback, I ran out of the house and was astonished to see that all the roads streets and houses appeared alike. Actually I wanted to buy something for my breakfast because there was no kitchen, refrigerator or shelf left in my home any more. But when I reached the mall there was another severe blow to me. The stores everywhere were all alike each dealing in gold and silver. Not only that, even the customers, shopkeepers and passer by all looked alike.

Now the question arises whether this oneness of rooms in the house, all the streets and houses looking the same in my neighborhood, or goldsmiths all around in the mall when I was in dire need of something to eat, would it make me happy or contended? Will this earth be heaven on earth keeping in view the above-mentioned scenarios of bedroom, streets and market? We shall very soon come to the conclusion that these monotonous situations are quite upsetting and annoying and miserable. We shall beg for immediate reversal and status quo.

The readers will surely agree with me that there is no dearth of such fanatic religious leaders who so profoundly profess this sort of uniformity amongst the mankind. They never feel tired claiming “come and join our religion, eat, drink and dress like us and adopt our rituals and way of worship and you will surely attain salvation”. These loud claims have resulted in forcible conversions that have brought nothing else but hatred and repulsions in the society, putting thousands and thousands of innocent people to death. All the bloodiest wars were and are being fought in the name of God and religion.

We all firmly believe God is the creator of the entire creation and nothing happens without his will then. God could have created the entire creation in uniformity in terms of color and appearance. What was the compulsion for him to create all these variations in person, places, weather and different planets? Have we ever pondered the real purpose behind it?

God made each and every person on the earth with distinctive features, different tastes and distastes, like and dislikes, different ways of dieting and dressing. In spite of his creation in different hues of colors, it is still in perfect harmony. Let us look to the nature, the cosmos, everything is changing every moment. Sun, moon and stars do not remain the same. Similarly earth, water and fire, air with distinctive features is undergoing the process of constant change. Look to our own mind, howsoever harder we try, it keeps on flickering. Nothing remains the same, days and nights, seasons and weathers are always seeking consolation in change and as already stated fire, water and air have nothing in common. In fact their natures are poles apart. But there is absolutely no fight, hatred or jealousy. They keep on performing their duties without any conflict. Unity in diversity is what we can learn from the nature, Gods own creation and accept and respect a man as he is instead of forcing him to go our way. We should imbibe the divine teachings of our merciful Baba Hardev Singh Ji Maharaj, the virtues of adjustability and adaptability in the prevailing environment and situations so that we all create the atmosphere of peaceful coexistence and respect for each other’s point of view and concepts. Then only this earth shall become a better place to live in. A heaven on earth.

Joginder Puri (August 2006)


Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Biography

Born: April 14, 1891
Died: December 6, 1956

Qualification: M.A., PH.D., LL.D., D. LITT., D. SC., BARRISTER-AT-LAW

Achievements: Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was elected as the chairman of the drafting committee that was constituted by the Constituent Assembly to draft a constitution for the independent India; he was the first Law Minister of India; conferred Bharat Ratna in 1990.Dr. B.R. Ambedkar is viewed as messiah of dalits and downtrodden in India. He was the chairman of the drafting committee that was constituted by the Constituent Assembly in 1947 to draft a constitution for the independent India. He played a seminal role in the framing of the constitution. Bhimrao Ambedkar was also the first Law Minister of India. For his yeoman service to the nation, B.R. Ambedkar was bestowed with Bharat Ratna in 1990.

Dr.Bhimrao Ambedkar was bornDr. B.R. Ambedkar on April 14, 1891 in Mhow (presently in Madhya Pradesh). He was the fourteenth child of Ramji and Bhimabai Sakpal Ambavedkar. B.R. Ambedkar belonged to the "untouchable" Mahar Caste. His father and grandfather served in the British Army. In those days, the government ensured that all the army personnel and their children were educated and ran special schools for this purpose. This ensured good education for Bhimrao Ambedkar, which would have otherwise been denied to him by the virtue of his caste.Bhimrao Ambedkar experienced caste discrimination right from the childhood. After his retirement, Bhimrao's father settled in Satara Maharashtra. Bhimrao was enrolled in the local school. Here, he had to sit on the floor in one corner in the classroom and teachers would not touch his notebooks. In spite of these hardships, Bhimrao continued his studies and passed his Matriculation examination from Bombay University with flying colours in 1908. Bhim Rao Ambedkar joined the Elphinstone College for further education. In 1912, he graduated in Political Science and Economics from Bombay University and got a job in Baroda. In 1913, Bhimrao Ambedkar lost his father. In the same year Maharaja of Baroda awarded scholarship to Bhim Rao Ambedkar and sent him to America for further studies. Bhimrao reached New York in July 1913. For the first time in his life, Bhim Rao was not demeaned for being a Mahar. He immersed himself in the studies and attained a degree in Master of Arts and a Doctorate in Philosophy from Columbia University in 1916 for his thesis "National Dividend for India: A Historical and Analytical Study." From America, Dr.Ambedkar proceeded to London to study economics and political science. But the Baroda government terminated his scholarship and recalled him back. The Maharaja of Baroda appointed Dr. Ambedkar as his political secretary. But no one would take orders from him because he was a Mahar. Bhimrao Ambedkar returned to Bombay in November 1917. With the help of Shahu Maharaj of Kolhapur, a sympathizer of the cause for the upliftment of the depressed classes, he started a fortnightly newspaper, the "Mooknayak" (Dumb Hero) on January 31, 1920. The Maharaja also convened many meetings and conferences of the "untouchables" which Bhimrao addressed. In September 1920, after accumulating sufficient funds, Ambedkar went back to London to complete his studies. He became a barrister and got a Doctorate in science. After completing his studies in London, Ambedkar returned to India. In July 1924, he founded the Bahishkrit Hitkaraini Sabha (Outcastes Welfare Association). The aim of the Sabha was to uplift the downtrodden socially and politically and bring them to the level of the others in the Indian society. In 1927, he led the Mahad March at the Chowdar Tank at Colaba, near Bombay, to give the untouchables the right to draw water from the public tank where he burnt copies of the 'Manusmriti' publicly.
In 1929, Ambedkar made the controversial decision to co-operate with the all-British Simon Commission which was to look into setting up a responsible Indian Government in India. The Congress decided to boycott the Commission and drafted its own version of a constitution for free India. The Congress version had no provisions for the depressed classes. Ambedkar became more skeptical of the Congress's commitment to safeguard the rights of the depressed classes.
When a separate electorate was announced for the depressed classes under Ramsay McDonald 'Communal Award', Gandhiji went on a fast unto death against this decision. Leaders rushed to Dr. Ambedkar to drop his demand. On September 24, 1932, Dr. Ambedkar and Gandhiji reached an understanding, which became the famous Poona Pact. According to the pact the separate electorate demand was replaced with special concessions like reserved seats in the regional legislative assemblies and Central Council of States.
Dr. Ambedkar attended all the three Round Table Conferences in London and forcefully argued for the welfare of the "untouchables". Meanwhile, British Government decided to hold provincial elections in 1937. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar set up the "Independent Labor Party" in August 1936 to contest the elections in the Bombay province. He and many candidates of his party were elected to the Bombay Legislative Assembly.
In 1937, Dr. Ambedkar introduced a Bill to abolish the "khoti" system of land tenure in the Konkan region, the serfdom of agricultural tenants and the Mahar "watan" system of working for the Government as slaves. A clause of an agrarian bill referred to the depressed classes as "Harijans," or people of God. Bhimrao was strongly opposed to this title for the untouchables. He argued that if the "untouchables" were people of God then all others would be people of monsters. He was against any such reference. But the Indian National Congress succeeded in introducing the term Harijan. Ambedkar felt bitter that they could not have any say in what they were called. In 1947, when India became independent, the first Prime Minister Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, invited Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar, who had been elected as a Member of the Constituent Assembly from Bengal, to join his Cabinet as a Law Minister. The Constituent Assembly entrusted the job of drafting the Constitution to a committee and Dr. Ambedkar was elected as Chairman of this Drafting Committee. In February 1948, Dr. Ambedkar presented the Draft Constitution before the people of India; it was adopted on November 26, 1949.
In October 1948, Dr. Ambedkar submitted the Hindu Code Bill to the Constituent Assembly in an attempt to codify the Hindu law. The Bill caused great divisions even in the Congress party. Consideration for the bill was postponed to September 1951. When the Bill was taken up it was truncated. A dejected Ambedkar relinquished his position as Law Minister. On May 24, 1956, on the occasion of Buddha Jayanti, he declared in Bombay, that he would adopt Buddhism in October. On 0ctober 14, 1956 he embraced Buddhism along with many of his followers. On December 6, 1956, Baba Saheb Dr. B.R. Ambedkar died peacefully in his sleep.

Source: http://www.ambedkar.webs.com/


Dr. Amartya Sen (born Nov. 3, 1933, Santiniketan, India) Indian economist who was awarded the 1998 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences for his work in welfare economics and social choice. Sen is best known for his work on the causes of famine, and his research led to the development of solutions for limiting the effects of food shortages. After attending Presidency College in Calcutta (now Kolkata), Sen studied at Trinity College, University of Cambridge (B.A., 1955; M.A. and Ph.D., 1959). He taught economics at the Universities of Jadavpur (1956 – 58) and Delhi (1963 – 71), the London School of Economics, the University of London (1971 – 77), the University of Oxford (1977 – 88), and Harvard University (1988 – 98). In 1998 he was appointed master of Trinity College. His Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation (1981) showed that declining wages, unemployment, rising food prices, and inefficient food distribution could lead to starvation. His views encouraged policy makers to maintain stable prices for food.

Source: http://www.answers.com/topic/amartya-sen#ixzz1QUQjUpvF

Dr. Amartya Sen has received many honorary degrees (over 90) from universities around the world.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amartya_Sen


Learning is an enjoyable activity. We learn better when there is not any kind of tension on our minds. Learning is active. 



Although all the students, teachers and employees of Punjabi University, Patiala are gems. I am writing some important names who are excellent in their fields.

1. C.P. Kamboj

ਸੀ ਪੀ ਕੰਬੋਜ
ਪ੍ਰੋਗਰਾਮਰ, ਭਾਸ਼ਾ ਵਿਗਿਆਨ ਤੇ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਕੋਸ਼ਕਾਰੀ ਵਿਭਾਗ
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਯੂਨੀਵਰਸਿਟੀ ਪਟਿਆਲਾ
ਬਲੌਗ : http://pbipc.blogspot.com/

(C P Kamboj, Punjabi University PatialaPunjab, India-147002, +91-175-3046240)


2. Rajwinder Singh


Society of the I T Experts


3. Nishu Sharma



4. Jaswir Singh









In recent times, there have been quite a few new additions to the scope of spirituality. Numerology is just one of them. Numerology essentially refers to the study and meanings of the number associated with a person. The number necessarily has to be a single digit and is drawn from the date of birth. To determine your own life number, write down your birth date numbers with the month, day and year. For example, if you were born on January 15, 1980, you would write 01 + 15 + 1980. Be sure to write the year, in this case, as "1980" versus simply "80." The sum total of your numbers then becomes 1 + 15 + 18 (1 + 9 + 8 + 0) = 34 = 3 + 4 = 7.

Hence, the life number is 7. Now that you have learnt how to derive your life number, lets take a quick look at the significance of numbers from 1 – 9.

Life Number 1: Number 1 reflects positive energy, strong will and leadership qualities. This number also indicates a strong balance between both the physical and mental. As a consequence, these people often spearhead new ventures. This number is represented by the Sun.

Life Number 2: Ruled by the powers of balance, duality and kindness, number 2 people often intermingle with others for the purpose of partnerships. They have a very strong sense of judgment and often urge others to counter their indecision. They are represented by the Moon.

Life Number 3: A number denoting success, reward and mirth, the number 3 often talks of accomplishments in most undertakings. This number also goes hand in hand with creativity, versatility and the pursuit of imagination. It is represented by Mars.

Life Number 4: Strongly associated with stability, number 4 people seek to be grounded about most things in life. They exhibit traits related to solidity, warmth, calm, endurance and homeliness. They are represented by Mercury.

Life Number 5: Travel and adventure is what the Number 5’s are associated with. Along with this comes much impulsiveness and constant change. Producing vibes that are erratic but exciting, these people defend chaos and question the system. They are represented by Jupiter.

Life Number 6: Number 6 represents love, sincerity and truth. Harbingers of calm, number 6 people choose compassion and diplomacy over all else. They have a knack for striking a perfect balance between the mental and the physical and thus rank higher on the spiritual plane. Number 6 is represented by planet Venus.

Life Number 7: Of all the number signs, the Number 7’s are shrouded in mystery. The people born under this number are said to be academically inclined with deep insights and a keen interest in what lies beyond. They are represented by Saturn.

Life Number 8: 8 is the number of ambition and success. Number 8 people are natural authoritarians and easily lead by example. Honor, dignity and reputation are important to them and they make natural celebrities, politicians, and business tycoons.

Life Number 9: Number nines are very idealistic in their approach, loving and caring, patient and extremely understanding. They are highly connected to Spirit, are peace loving and do well as a healer, spiritual guru, psychic, an educator or in some medical profession.



Confession is one of the best ways of spiritual cleansing. Here is how you can make it a part of your spiritual regime for a life much brighter, happier and a little more divine.

Who do you confess to: Confession isn't bound to a priest or a church. Very often, the act of confession happens with someone who you're close to; or someone who can keep your secrets. If you're very brave, you can even confess to the person that you have harmed. The important thing is to know you have done wrong.

Confess your own: When confessing, remember that you're apologizing and setting forward the mistakes that you have made. So, don't try to make them seem valid by providing justifications for your behavior. Put aside the 'but she said/did' approach to provide clarifications for your behavior.

• Be truthful: Often, our faults seem a lot worse when we hear them out loud for the first time. But that doesn't mean that we cheat and underplay them, make things up or tell half truth. Be honest, confess about the whole deal and come clean. It'll help you attain peace.

Keep pleasantries away: Contrary to popular belief, when confessing to a padri or an official, try to keep the pleasantries and the jokes minimal. Although, you may think that this is a good way to break the ice, from a religious point of view, confession is a very serious act and must be done sincerely to be truly forgiven.

Confess and learn: Confession is just one of the first steps of redemption and hence one must be careful enough not repeat the same mistakes again. This will imply that you are truly apologetic for the blunders that you have made in the past, have repented and are taking efforts not to repeat them.

From the dark forest to the flame of truth  

As the auspicious and the fun filled festival of Holi approaches us, most of us feel the need to eradicate the darkness of our hearts and replace it with the blazing energy and light of truth. Here are 5 simple tips to help you stay spiritually nourished and enjoy the true fervour of this colourful festival:

1. Forgive and forget
That’s what the pious festival of Holi is all about. Forgive those who may have hurt you in the past and embrace them with unbiased affection. The intensity of peace unleashed in your heart by forgiving a friend will leave you surprised.

2. Eat healthy
To deprive ourselves of healthy and nutritious food issues in unfitness, weakness, sickness—true alike in the natural and the spiritual. Thus, pay attention to your diet. Only if you are fit physically, you will be able to concentrate on your souls needs.

3. Stay away from addictions
Indulging in addictions of any sort dulls our mind and makes us unaware of our souls presence and its inclinations. Feel the spiritual charge by staying away from addictions.

4. Read Inspirational writings
One who absorbs enlightening words and truthful writings, no longer finds the mundane, ruthless words sweet to his/her taste. Begin your day with empowering words to keep you mind nourished with spiritual power, then read newspapers, reports, novels and all that you must. Make an effort to not read words that pollute your mind with negative or dangerous thoughts.

5. Avoid arguments
Fights and arguments exude negative energy that creates obstacles for spiritual growth. So stay away from arguments and fights of any sort and gather all your positive energy to spiritually nourish yourselves.

Have a spiritually empowering Holi!

Give Yourself A Spiritual Makeover!



All of us go through smooth patches in life and some rough ones. Getting perturbed, blaming others, and slipping into a state of depression only make the situation worse. These five spiritual tricks can give you a complete mental makeover and ensure you handle all times of crisis calmly.

1. Believe in the Karmic cycle
Everything in life doesn’t have a quick-fix solution. There are things pre-destined for everyone depending on their karma. The rule is simple -- what you put in the universe will come back to you. So if you haven’t done any wrong, the rough patch in life is superficial and will do no harm to you. In fact, it will prove to be a boon in disguise. But if you have caused harm to anyone, the karmic cycle will bring trouble your way. So mean well for all and all will stay well in your life.

2. Keep your conscience clear
Your heart and mind dim with hope when something inside you tells you that you deserved this punishment. This happens when you have indulged in deeds against the clearance of your conscience. So it’s best not to do what may stain your conscience and burden yourself with thoughts of self-blame.

3. Confess and accept
Spare yourself the pains of self-denial. In case you are at fault, simply accept your mistakes and make attempts to reform them. Disguising your mistakes will only guide you to repeat them. Once you openly accept your mistakes, you will sail through the bad times smoothly with your eyes focused on a better future.

4. Don’t burn in the throes of revenge
Desire to take revenge is negative and it will obviously fill you with more negative energy, so quit it. Remember, the Karmic wheel will punish the deserving. You don’t need to fret over it.

5. Indulge in activities you love
Playing the guitar, reading a book, going on jungle trails, spending time in your favorite place of worship and so on – the activity that makes you happy could extend towards you the most spiritual experience you have ever had.




You need not trek up to the Himalayas and sit in complete isolation to attain nirvana. If you want to relax and control your mind, you can do it in your room, at work, where ever you wish. Just a little bit of patience and practice is all it takes. Here are some tips to help you sharpen your meditation skills that will in the longer run you in taming your mind.

Preparation And Timing

To meditate, you need to be alert, energetic, and awake to be able to concentrate.
Mediation should be performed on an empty stomach. Or have something light like a cup of tea and a biscuit just before. At least this will prevent your stomach from growling and won’t distract you during meditation. Avoid eating anything heavy to prevent sluggishness during meditation.
Always sit in the early morning hours, right after waking up and brushing your teeth. The ideal time for meditation is before breakfast in the morning or before dinner in the evening.
Fix a time for meditation daily. Disciplines such as fixed timings also prove beneficial for meditation. Choosing a time when no one is going to disturb you also helps. Make it a point to meditate at the same time and place everyday.
It is very important to sit straight. Sluggishness and slouching won’t help even if you religiously sit down for meditation every day.
If the traditional padmasana pose is not possible then sit in the usual crossed legged position, with your hands resting on your knees and your back straight.
Practice And Patience
Be regular with your meditation. If you did not get the time to mediate in the morning, then try and compensate it in the evening.
You can even meditate during stressful times at work or class. All you need to do is close your eyes and concentrate on slow, deep breathing.
Remember, your mind WILL wander during meditation. But it is a part of the meditation process. Whenever you find your mind wavering, slowly bring it back to concentrate on your breathing. This will sharpen your concentration and meditation abilities.
Be patient with yourself, even if you cannot concentrate immediately. But don’t stop your mediation; practice it daily.

Vipassana, one of India's most ancient techniques of meditation, is catching the attention of loads of people from busy metros in their search for a small piece of peace. Literally meaning ‘to see things as they really are’, Vipassana was rediscovered by Goutama Buddha more than 2500 years ago and was preached by him as a universal remedy for universal ills. Its purpose is to heal, not just the body, but also the mind and soul, thus elevating humans from the plane of suffering.

Before we get into the benefits of Vipassana, let us understand how Vipassana works.

The 10 Day Vipassana Regime:

The beginners’ course consists of a 10-day period of silence and abstinence. It can be split largely into three steps of training:

1. One must abstain from speaking, stealing, eating elaborately, thinking ill of others and indulging in sexual activity and intoxicants during the period of the course. This will calm your mind.
2. Next, one must focus on the flow of one’s breath as one inhales and exhales. You will notice that your mind is calmer and more focused by the fourth day.
3. Finally, on the last day, participants learn a technique of meditation that teaches them to think well about everything and everyone.
Benefits of Vipassana

So powerful is this ancient form of meditation that it can resurrect your life. The five points below highlight what you can achieve with Vipassana and how:

1. Transforms you:
Vipassana helps in self-transformation through self-observation. It is a form of meditation that concentrates on the deep interconnection between the mind and the body, thus providing its practicioners with a balanced mind, full of peace, love and affections.

2. Helps overcome sorrow:

Vipassana helps you come to terms with reality by instilling courage in your heart to face things as they are.

3. Helps you understand your thoughts:

The scientific laws that operate one's thoughts, feelings and judgments become evident through Vipassana. Thus, one understands how one develops or regresses, how one gathers suffering or liberates oneself from it.

4. Controls physical suffering:

Physical suffering is destroyed through mindfulness meditation. It is also claimed that illnesses have been cured in Burma using Vipassana.

5. Helps attain enlightenment:

Vipassana enables you to attain the knowledge of your path. It guides you towards your life goal by helping you realize your priorities in life.

Vipassana has the power to transform the human mind and soul. Have faith and confidence in your practice and you are bound to see results.


“So then I guess it’s fair to say that you believe in karma instead of God?” remarked a friend of mine to end one of our many pseudo-intellectual discussions. And of course she was right. Religion and faith intertwined work brilliantly for most people. Maybe a little knowledge about karma and a closer look at things and events in your life, or someone else’s for that matter, could reinforce your belief in the karmic principles.

Karma, as most people know it, is one’s own doing -- something cyclical and related to nirvana. In today’s pop culture driven world, we can sum it up as a ‘what goes around comes around’ phenomenon. It is the simple understanding that a person’s actions and experiences in the present will determine the series of actions and events that he will experience in the future. A comprehensive understanding of the notion of karma is said to be instrumental in helping individuals cope with negative sentiments such as anger, rage, hate, jealousy.

As elementary as it sounds, the thought that every good, nice or pleasant thing that you ever did will come back to you and everything not so good you ever did would also be cast unto you is highly satisfying and unnerving, respectively.

Experts say that the fear of whatever one does (largely actions or thoughts that are perceived as being negative) coming back to haunt you is enough for people to bend their thinking towards a more positive note. So the next time you find yourself getting all feverish about something or someone that really gets your goat, just think of every nice thing you did and how it’ll all come back to you in the end. It really does help to calm you down!


It is quite common to confuse spirituality with religion – many in fact use the words interchangeably. Thus, many people who are irreligious (agnostic or atheist) reject spirituality in their lives too, which is unfortunate since spirituality can be a valuable anchor in life. Spirituality does not require an individual to believe in magic, fairies, miracles and fables. Here are some of the ways in which an individual may pursue a spiritual existence:


Increase one’s knowledge and wisdom: Knowledge is not always accompanied by wisdom. While one involves a mere bookish, academic approach to life, wisdom comes from experience, deep thought and reflection. True spirituality can thus come from reflecting upon knowledge so that it leads to wisdom.


Serve others: A truly spiritual person knows that the ego is but an unnecessary millstone around one’s neck, hampering one’s true advance upon the path of spirituality and humility. Serving others, performing menial chores, and doing common household tasks with no shame and with the intention of helping others is also a path to spirituality, as practiced, in fact, by Mahatma Gandhi.


Improve your relationship with the universe: The concept of ‘pantheism’ (as opposed to atheism) subscribes to the belief that the universe itself is God. Getting in sync with nature, taking time out to appreciate its beauty, and being aware of the influence of natural phenomena on our lives are small ways to achieve a more spiritual existence.


Be healthy: Our bodies are the most sophisticated instruments we will ever have access to. It is our responsibility to keep them healthy and supple, without loading them with artificial health-inducers. Science has upheld the benefits of Ayurveda, Pranic healing and Yoga. Experiment with these natural routes to health to gain a more spiritual existence.


Be quiet: We live in a world that is full of noise, pollution and constant distractions that take us away from our spiritual path. The next time you’re stressed, try meditation instead of turning on the TV or loud music. Simple meditation techniques – not the yogi-on-a-mountain variety – can be practiced even in the train on the way to work or while sitting at one’s desk.


In order to become a successful student, you need to understand your learning processes. Learning to learn can be learned. You need to start by beginning to understand your own needs and interests, your ability to learn, your best way of learning, and your understanding of the subject.

Learning is a process. It is built upon steps. Analyze your studying. Figure out how you learn. It can be by memorizing, reading, speaking, summarizing or other methods. Find out how you study best. It can be in a quiet place by yourself or with a group. Find out how you test best. Testing can be by true/false, multiple choice, discussion or speaking.

Decide how much the topic intrigues you. It may be that you do not understand the subject but are determined to get a certain degree. Dedication is important in the learning process.

When you are studying, look over the subject matter. Get the feel of the topics through the headings, titles, bullets, key words and definitions. Decide if you need other references to help you such as a dictionary, atlas or thesaurus. Read the subject matter. See if you have more questions or if you need to come back to it later. You may decide that you need to talk with your teacher or go to a tutoring session.

A successful learner always reviews. Go back and look over the topic. Decide if you could have studied in a better, more effective manner. Learn your best study techniques and stay with them.


SHARE YOUR KNOWLEDGE WITH OTHERS. IT WILL ALWAYS GROW.                                                                                               


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