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on April 13, 2009 at 7:45:40 pm

Mohit Puri,

M.Sc.(Maths), M.Ed.,UGC-JRF,






Hello Students, How are you?

If you have any problem in subjects of Teacher in Emerging Society and Understanding Human Behaviour, then tell me. I am providing easy notes as well as powerpoint presentations for your effective learning. 




Teacher in emerging society


Learning is an enjoyable activity. We learn better when there is not any kind of tension on our mind. 

Learning is active. 







In recent times, there have been quite a few new additions to the scope of spirituality. Numerology is just one of them. Numerology essentially refers to the study and meanings of the number associated with a person. The number necessarily has to be a single digit and is drawn from the date of birth. To determine your own life number, write down your birth date numbers with the month, day and year. For example, if you were born on January 15, 1980, you would write 01 + 15 + 1980. Be sure to write the year, in this case, as "1980" versus simply "80." The sum total of your numbers then becomes 1 + 15 + 18 (1 + 9 + 8 + 0) = 34 = 3 + 4 = 7.

Hence, the life number is 7. Now that you have learnt how to derive your life number, lets take a quick look at the significance of numbers from 1 – 9.

Life Number 1: Number 1 reflects positive energy, strong will and leadership qualities. This number also indicates a strong balance between both the physical and mental. As a consequence, these people often spearhead new ventures. This number is represented by the Sun.

Life Number 2: Ruled by the powers of balance, duality and kindness, number 2 people often intermingle with others for the purpose of partnerships. They have a very strong sense of judgment and often urge others to counter their indecision. They are represented by the Moon.

Life Number 3: A number denoting success, reward and mirth, the number 3 often talks of accomplishments in most undertakings. This number also goes hand in hand with creativity, versatility and the pursuit of imagination. It is represented by Mars.

Life Number 4: Strongly associated with stability, number 4 people seek to be grounded about most things in life. They exhibit traits related to solidity, warmth, calm, endurance and homeliness. They are represented by Mercury.

Life Number 5: Travel and adventure is what the Number 5’s are associated with. Along with this comes much impulsiveness and constant change. Producing vibes that are erratic but exciting, these people defend chaos and question the system. They are represented by Jupiter.

Life Number 6: Number 6 represents love, sincerity and truth. Harbingers of calm, number 6 people choose compassion and diplomacy over all else. They have a knack for striking a perfect balance between the mental and the physical and thus rank higher on the spiritual plane. Number 6 is represented by planet Venus.

Life Number 7: Of all the number signs, the Number 7’s are shrouded in mystery. The people born under this number are said to be academically inclined with deep insights and a keen interest in what lies beyond. They are represented by Saturn.

Life Number 8: 8 is the number of ambition and success. Number 8 people are natural authoritarians and easily lead by example. Honor, dignity and reputation are important to them and they make natural celebrities, politicians, and business tycoons.

Life Number 9: Number nines are very idealistic in their approach, loving and caring, patient and extremely understanding. They are highly connected to Spirit, are peace loving and do well as a healer, spiritual guru, psychic, an educator or in some medical profession.



Confession is one of the best ways of spiritual cleansing. Here is how you can make it a part of your spiritual regime for a life much brighter, happier and a little more divine.

Who do you confess to: Confession isn't bound to a priest or a church. Very often, the act of confession happens with someone who you're close to; or someone who can keep your secrets. If you're very brave, you can even confess to the person that you have harmed. The important thing is to know you have done wrong.

Confess your own: When confessing, remember that you're apologizing and setting forward the mistakes that you have made. So, don't try to make them seem valid by providing justifications for your behavior. Put aside the 'but she said/did' approach to provide clarifications for your behavior.

• Be truthful: Often, our faults seem a lot worse when we hear them out loud for the first time. But that doesn't mean that we cheat and underplay them, make things up or tell half truth. Be honest, confess about the whole deal and come clean. It'll help you attain peace.

Keep pleasantries away: Contrary to popular belief, when confessing to a padri or an official, try to keep the pleasantries and the jokes minimal. Although, you may think that this is a good way to break the ice, from a religious point of view, confession is a very serious act and must be done sincerely to be truly forgiven.

Confess and learn: Confession is just one of the first steps of redemption and hence one must be careful enough not repeat the same mistakes again. This will imply that you are truly apologetic for the blunders that you have made in the past, have repented and are taking efforts not to repeat them.

From the dark forest to the flame of truth  

As the auspicious and the fun filled festival of Holi approaches us, most of us feel the need to eradicate the darkness of our hearts and replace it with the blazing energy and light of truth. Here are 5 simple tips to help you stay spiritually nourished and enjoy the true fervour of this colourful festival:

1. Forgive and forget
That’s what the pious festival of Holi is all about. Forgive those who may have hurt you in the past and embrace them with unbiased affection. The intensity of peace unleashed in your heart by forgiving a friend will leave you surprised.

2. Eat healthy
To deprive ourselves of healthy and nutritious food issues in unfitness, weakness, sickness—true alike in the natural and the spiritual. Thus, pay attention to your diet. Only if you are fit physically, you will be able to concentrate on your souls needs.

3. Stay away from addictions
Indulging in addictions of any sort dulls our mind and makes us unaware of our souls presence and its inclinations. Feel the spiritual charge by staying away from addictions.

4. Read Inspirational writings
One who absorbs enlightening words and truthful writings, no longer finds the mundane, ruthless words sweet to his/her taste. Begin your day with empowering words to keep you mind nourished with spiritual power, then read newspapers, reports, novels and all that you must. Make an effort to not read words that pollute your mind with negative or dangerous thoughts.

5. Avoid arguments
Fights and arguments exude negative energy that creates obstacles for spiritual growth. So stay away from arguments and fights of any sort and gather all your positive energy to spiritually nourish yourselves.

Have a spiritually empowering Holi!

Give Yourself A Spiritual Makeover!



All of us go through smooth patches in life and some rough ones. Getting perturbed, blaming others, and slipping into a state of depression only make the situation worse. These five spiritual tricks can give you a complete mental makeover and ensure you handle all times of crisis calmly.

1. Believe in the Karmic cycle
Everything in life doesn’t have a quick-fix solution. There are things pre-destined for everyone depending on their karma. The rule is simple -- what you put in the universe will come back to you. So if you haven’t done any wrong, the rough patch in life is superficial and will do no harm to you. In fact, it will prove to be a boon in disguise. But if you have caused harm to anyone, the karmic cycle will bring trouble your way. So mean well for all and all will stay well in your life.

2. Keep your conscience clear
Your heart and mind dim with hope when something inside you tells you that you deserved this punishment. This happens when you have indulged in deeds against the clearance of your conscience. So it’s best not to do what may stain your conscience and burden yourself with thoughts of self-blame.

3. Confess and accept
Spare yourself the pains of self-denial. In case you are at fault, simply accept your mistakes and make attempts to reform them. Disguising your mistakes will only guide you to repeat them. Once you openly accept your mistakes, you will sail through the bad times smoothly with your eyes focused on a better future.

4. Don’t burn in the throes of revenge
Desire to take revenge is negative and it will obviously fill you with more negative energy, so quit it. Remember, the Karmic wheel will punish the deserving. You don’t need to fret over it.

5. Indulge in activities you love
Playing the guitar, reading a book, going on jungle trails, spending time in your favorite place of worship and so on – the activity that makes you happy could extend towards you the most spiritual experience you have ever had.




You need not trek up to the Himalayas and sit in complete isolation to attain nirvana. If you want to relax and control your mind, you can do it in your room, at work, where ever you wish. Just a little bit of patience and practice is all it takes. Here are some tips to help you sharpen your meditation skills that will in the longer run you in taming your mind.

Preparation And Timing

To meditate, you need to be alert, energetic, and awake to be able to concentrate.
Mediation should be performed on an empty stomach. Or have something light like a cup of tea and a biscuit just before. At least this will prevent your stomach from growling and won’t distract you during meditation. Avoid eating anything heavy to prevent sluggishness during meditation.
Always sit in the early morning hours, right after waking up and brushing your teeth. The ideal time for meditation is before breakfast in the morning or before dinner in the evening.
Fix a time for meditation daily. Disciplines such as fixed timings also prove beneficial for meditation. Choosing a time when no one is going to disturb you also helps. Make it a point to meditate at the same time and place everyday.
It is very important to sit straight. Sluggishness and slouching won’t help even if you religiously sit down for meditation every day.
If the traditional padmasana pose is not possible then sit in the usual crossed legged position, with your hands resting on your knees and your back straight.
Practice And Patience
Be regular with your meditation. If you did not get the time to mediate in the morning, then try and compensate it in the evening.
You can even meditate during stressful times at work or class. All you need to do is close your eyes and concentrate on slow, deep breathing.
Remember, your mind WILL wander during meditation. But it is a part of the meditation process. Whenever you find your mind wavering, slowly bring it back to concentrate on your breathing. This will sharpen your concentration and meditation abilities.
Be patient with yourself, even if you cannot concentrate immediately. But don’t stop your mediation; practice it daily.

Vipassana, one of India's most ancient techniques of meditation, is catching the attention of loads of people from busy metros in their search for a small piece of peace. Literally meaning ‘to see things as they really are’, Vipassana was rediscovered by Goutama Buddha more than 2500 years ago and was preached by him as a universal remedy for universal ills. Its purpose is to heal, not just the body, but also the mind and soul, thus elevating humans from the plane of suffering.

Before we get into the benefits of Vipassana, let us understand how Vipassana works.

The 10 Day Vipassana Regime:

The beginners’ course consists of a 10-day period of silence and abstinence. It can be split largely into three steps of training:

1. One must abstain from speaking, stealing, eating elaborately, thinking ill of others and indulging in sexual activity and intoxicants during the period of the course. This will calm your mind.
2. Next, one must focus on the flow of one’s breath as one inhales and exhales. You will notice that your mind is calmer and more focused by the fourth day.
3. Finally, on the last day, participants learn a technique of meditation that teaches them to think well about everything and everyone.
Benefits of Vipassana

So powerful is this ancient form of meditation that it can resurrect your life. The five points below highlight what you can achieve with Vipassana and how:

1. Transforms you:
Vipassana helps in self-transformation through self-observation. It is a form of meditation that concentrates on the deep interconnection between the mind and the body, thus providing its practicioners with a balanced mind, full of peace, love and affections.

2. Helps overcome sorrow:

Vipassana helps you come to terms with reality by instilling courage in your heart to face things as they are.

3. Helps you understand your thoughts:

The scientific laws that operate one's thoughts, feelings and judgments become evident through Vipassana. Thus, one understands how one develops or regresses, how one gathers suffering or liberates oneself from it.

4. Controls physical suffering:

Physical suffering is destroyed through mindfulness meditation. It is also claimed that illnesses have been cured in Burma using Vipassana.

5. Helps attain enlightenment:

Vipassana enables you to attain the knowledge of your path. It guides you towards your life goal by helping you realize your priorities in life.

Vipassana has the power to transform the human mind and soul. Have faith and confidence in your practice and you are bound to see results.


“So then I guess it’s fair to say that you believe in karma instead of God?” remarked a friend of mine to end one of our many pseudo-intellectual discussions. And of course she was right. Religion and faith intertwined work brilliantly for most people. Maybe a little knowledge about karma and a closer look at things and events in your life, or someone else’s for that matter, could reinforce your belief in the karmic principles.

Karma, as most people know it, is one’s own doing -- something cyclical and related to nirvana. In today’s pop culture driven world, we can sum it up as a ‘what goes around comes around’ phenomenon. It is the simple understanding that a person’s actions and experiences in the present will determine the series of actions and events that he will experience in the future. A comprehensive understanding of the notion of karma is said to be instrumental in helping individuals cope with negative sentiments such as anger, rage, hate, jealousy.

As elementary as it sounds, the thought that every good, nice or pleasant thing that you ever did will come back to you and everything not so good you ever did would also be cast unto you is highly satisfying and unnerving, respectively.

Experts say that the fear of whatever one does (largely actions or thoughts that are perceived as being negative) coming back to haunt you is enough for people to bend their thinking towards a more positive note. So the next time you find yourself getting all feverish about something or someone that really gets your goat, just think of every nice thing you did and how it’ll all come back to you in the end. It really does help to calm you down!


It is quite common to confuse spirituality with religion – many in fact use the words interchangeably. Thus, many people who are irreligious (agnostic or atheist) reject spirituality in their lives too, which is unfortunate since spirituality can be a valuable anchor in life. Spirituality does not require an individual to believe in magic, fairies, miracles and fables. Here are some of the ways in which an individual may pursue a spiritual existence:


Increase one’s knowledge and wisdom: Knowledge is not always accompanied by wisdom. While one involves a mere bookish, academic approach to life, wisdom comes from experience, deep thought and reflection. True spirituality can thus come from reflecting upon knowledge so that it leads to wisdom.


Serve others: A truly spiritual person knows that the ego is but an unnecessary millstone around one’s neck, hampering one’s true advance upon the path of spirituality and humility. Serving others, performing menial chores, and doing common household tasks with no shame and with the intention of helping others is also a path to spirituality, as practiced, in fact, by Mahatma Gandhi.


Improve your relationship with the universe: The concept of ‘pantheism’ (as opposed to atheism) subscribes to the belief that the universe itself is God. Getting in sync with nature, taking time out to appreciate its beauty, and being aware of the influence of natural phenomena on our lives are small ways to achieve a more spiritual existence.


Be healthy: Our bodies are the most sophisticated instruments we will ever have access to. It is our responsibility to keep them healthy and supple, without loading them with artificial health-inducers. Science has upheld the benefits of Ayurveda, Pranic healing and Yoga. Experiment with these natural routes to health to gain a more spiritual existence.


Be quiet: We live in a world that is full of noise, pollution and constant distractions that take us away from our spiritual path. The next time you’re stressed, try meditation instead of turning on the TV or loud music. Simple meditation techniques – not the yogi-on-a-mountain variety – can be practiced even in the train on the way to work or while sitting at one’s desk.


In order to become a successful student, you need to understand your learning processes. Learning to learn can be learned. You need to start by beginning to understand your own needs and interests, your ability to learn, your best way of learning, and your understanding of the subject.

Learning is a process. It is built upon steps. Analyze your studying. Figure out how you learn. It can be by memorizing, reading, speaking, summarizing or other methods. Find out how you study best. It can be in a quiet place by yourself or with a group. Find out how you test best. Testing can be by true/false, multiple choice, discussion or speaking.

Decide how much the topic intrigues you. It may be that you do not understand the subject but are determined to get a certain degree. Dedication is important in the learning process.

When you are studying, look over the subject matter. Get the feel of the topics through the headings, titles, bullets, key words and definitions. Decide if you need other references to help you such as a dictionary, atlas or thesaurus. Read the subject matter. See if you have more questions or if you need to come back to it later. You may decide that you need to talk with your teacher or go to a tutoring session.

A successful learner always reviews. Go back and look over the topic. Decide if you could have studied in a better, more effective manner. Learn your best study techniques and stay with them.

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